20th century music period

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They were both musical movements that broke away from many of the previous traditional ideals. The 20th century period of music, as its name suggests, began around 1900. Busoni, Stra… Jazz, which was created by African Americans, was arguably the biggest musical development of the 20th Century. Elsewhere, composers like Charles Ives made use of microtones. Composers tended to stick to these and lots of the music composed during that time had a similar ‘sound‘. It's Methodist and Holiness and Baptist. [19] Folk music was normally shared and performed by the entire community (not by a special class of expert or professional performers, possibly excluding the idea of amateurs), and was transmitted by word of mouth (oral tradition). While sound recording technology is often associated with the key role it played in enabling the creation and mass marketing of popular music, new electric and electronic sound recording technology was used to produce art music, as well. The 20th century composers were looking for something new, throwing away the rule books and all preconceived notions about composition, rejecting the norms of the "Common Practice Period." In the early 20th century, many composers, including Rachmaninoff, Richard Strauss, Giacomo Puccini, and Edward Elgar, continued to work in forms and in a musical language that derived from the 19th century. Jazz originated in the early 20th century out of a combination of the Blues, Ragtime, Brass Band Music, Hymns and Spirituals, Minstrel music and work songs. One of the key figures of the modernist movement was Arnold Shoenberg, who pioneered atonalism in the 1920s. We have learned about impressionism, modernism, minimalism and aleatory, and about how war, politics and technology influenced music, as composers tore up the rules that were established in previous centuries. Schaeffer, P. (1966), Traité des objets musicaux, Le Seuil, Paris. [35], At the same time, the neoclassicism that became fashionable in the 1920s is represented by Stravinsky's opera buffa Mavra (1922) and his opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex (1927). [28] Some bluegrass fiddle songs popular in Appalachia, such as "Leather Britches", and "Pretty Polly", have Scottish roots. The USA was now a force to be reckoned with in the world of classical composition for the first time, and a number of American composers looked towards the artform for inspiration, including Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland and George Gerswhin. Benjamin Britten’s War Requiem and Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima by Krzysztof Eugeniusz Penderecki are examples of pieces that reflect upon the horrors of the Second World War. [38], Country music, once known as Country and Western music, is a popular musical form developed in the southern United States, with roots in traditional folk music, spirituals, and the blues. Dan Farrant, the founder of Hello Music Theory, has been teaching music for over 10 years helping thousands of students unlock the joy of music. Consequently, this century was without a dominant style. This enabled a much wider range of the population to listen to performances of Classical music symphonies and operas that they would not be able to hear live, either due to not being able to afford live-concert tickets or because such music was not performed in their region. Elsewhere , Russian composer Igor Stravinksy’s use of rhythm was highly innovative, utilising frequently shifting time signatures. Stravinsky's works, particularly after the highly acclaimed The Rite of Spring, did not emphasize tonality but felt restrained. I’m Dan and I run this website. As a result, there is no regonisable unified sound to the music of this period, and it is, in general, much more stylistically divergent than the preceding eras of Western art music. Although some composers chose to compose in older styles many sought to … Your email address will not be published. Featured composers include Berg, Britten, Delius, Elgar, Holst, Ravel, Schoenberg, Smyth, Stravinsky, Vaughan Williams and Webern. Characteristics of 20th Century Music. [34], Some of the most important operas of the twenties and thirties were composed by the Russian Dmitri Shostakovich (The Nose, 1928 and Ledi Makbet Mtsenkovo Uyezda [Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District], 1932). The second half of the 20th century was void of a dominant style in music composition. Neoclassical: A term applied to the music of early 20th century composers like Stravinsky which reflects the 18th-century music. [citation needed] Steven Halpern's Spectrum Suite, released in 1975, is generally credited as the album that began the new-age music movement. So that concludes our look at the classical music of the 20th Century. 20th Century Art, Music, and Literature 20th Century Art, Music, and Literature I've told you that one of the best ways to understand a society is to look at the art, music, and literature it produces. Some younger composers such as Oliver Knussen, Wolfgang Rihm, Georg Friedrich Haas, Judith Weir, George Benson, Richard Barrett, Simon Bainbridge, John Luther Adams, Toshio Hosokawa, Bright Sheng, Kaija Saariaho, Tan Dun, Magnus Lindberg, Philippe Manoury, Olga Neuwirth, Rebecca Saunders, David Lang, Hanspeter Kyburz, James MacMillan, Mark-Anthony Turnage, Thomas Adès, Marc-André Dalbavie, Unsuk Chin, Claus-Steffen Mahnkopf, and Michael Daugherty did not rise to prominence until late in the 20th century. Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to the period that started in the mid-1970s to early 1990s, which includes modernist, postmodern, neoromantic, and pluralist music. . Music of the 20th Century...MUSIC OF THE 20th CENTURY Music of the 20th century Introduction In this history of music and arts, every period has its own characteristic style which is associated with the society from which it originated. A newer development in the bluegrass world is Neo-traditional bluegrass; exemplified by bands such as The Grascals and Mountain Heart, bands from this subgenre typically have more than one lead singer. Your email address will not be published. This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 20:22. He also experimented with 12-tone music, which is based on a tone row made up of all 12 notes from the chromatic scale in a given order, with all 12 given more or less equal importance, and then manipulated in various structured ways. It is likely that young people were already among the main consumers of the dance crazes of the 1920s, although they were officially limited to expensive clubs that did not admit teenagers anyway. Because of the aggressive political environment, advances in technology, and major changes in style, music changed radically in … This is particularly evident in his revolutionary ballet The Rite of Spring, which caused quite a stir when it was first performed in 1913: With two World Wars, the 20th Century was a time of major social and political change, and it was inevitable that this would have an impact upon the arts. He made use of a prepared piano, which has objects placed on or between the strings to alter its sound, often making it more percussive. Prepared piano A piano whose sound is altered by placing objects such as bolts, screws, rubber bands, or pieces of felt between the strings of some of the keys. The invention of electronic instruments and the synthesizer in the mid-twentieth century revolutionized popular music and accelerated the development of new forms of music. "Art" music, for example, is generally regarded as by nature complex, difficult, demanding; "popular" music then has to be defined as "simple", "accessible", "facile". Some of the composers who influenced John Cage were Erik Satie (1866–1925), Arnold Schoenberg (1874–1951) and Henry Dixon Cowell (1897–1965). Béla Bartók collected Hungarian folk tunes, which provided inspiration for his own work, while Ralph Vaughan Williams wrote an English Folk Song Suite. The composers of this era attempted to describe scenes and evoke moods by the use of rich harmonies and a wide palette of timbre. The Common Practice era (which used a tonal system based on key centres and standard chord progressions, as well as structures like sonata form) had been in place since the Baroque period, and by the 20th Century there was a feeling that late Romantic composers like Wagner and Richard Strauss had done everything that could be done within this framework. He graduated from The Royal Academy of Music in 2012 and then launched Hello Music Theory in 2014. [13] However, the term may also be employed in a broader sense to refer to all post-1945 musical forms.[14]. Thanks for stopping by and if you have any questions get in touch! Polka music rose in popularity in Chicago in the late 1940s after Walter ‘Li’l Wally’ Wallace Jagiello created "honky" polka by combining the Polish-American rural polka with elements of Polish folksong and krakowiak. [20], In addition, folk music was also borrowed by composers in other genres. Over ti… Modern:1890 – 1975 4. In Music. Similar sympathies in the second half of the century are generally subsumed under the heading "postmodernism".[9]. Often this means that the performer gets to determine how part of the piece should be played, perhaps with a freely improvised section. Even when longstanding genres were used, composers felt very comfortable abandoning the traditional structures of those genres. 2001. Minimalism was practiced heavily throughout the latter half of the century and has carried over into the 21st century, as well as composers like Arvo Pärt, Henryk Górecki and John Tavener working in the holy minimalism variant. Neither of these operas were completed in their composers’ lifetimes, however, so that the first completed opera using the twelve-tone technique was Karl V (1938) by Ernst Krenek. Later in the century his last opera, The Rake's Progress (1951), also marks the end of the neoclassical phase of his compositions. It deals with the subject of mortality through irony and collage. Béla Bartók The Musical Quarterly Vol. Many European composers at the beginning of the 20th century felt that the system of tonality (music in major and minor keys) had been used for so long that it was time to do create a new approach and try something different. These are notes that are smaller than the semitones we generally use. This music was generally more consonant-sounding and less overtly challenging than the modernist school, and composers like Phillip Glass and Steve Reich became incredibly popular: Musique concrete also utilised electronics. The 20th century and beyond. We’ll take a look at impressionism, modernism and atonalism, electronic music and minimalism, and the influences that jazz and folk had upon classical music, as well the impact caused by war and political upheaval. "From Experimental Music to Musical Experiment". In the mo st general sense: shape (contour, the variation of some attribute of a thing in space or time ), and structure (the disposition of 1919–20), people mainly listened to music at live Classical music concerts or musical theatre shows, which were too expensive for many working class people; on early phonograph players (a technology invented in 1877 which was not mass-marketed until the mid-1890s); or by individuals performing music or singing songs on an amateur basis at home, using sheet music, which required the ability to sing, play, and read music. His students Alban Berg and Anton Webern developed this approach, which is sometimes referred to as serialism, and the three Austrian composers are collectively known as the Second Viennese School (with Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven being the First Viennese School). Černušák, Gracian, Andrew Lamb, and John Tyrrell. The development of powerful, loud guitar amplifiers and sound reinforcement systems in the 1960s and 1970s permitted bands to hold large concerts where even those with the least expensive tickets could hear the show. By taking recorded sounds – of instruments, the human voice or the natural environment, for example – composers like Pierre Boulez and Karlheinz Stockhausen would manipulate these raw materials and turn them into sort of musical collages. Both stressed emotion and depth, and focussed on the composer's individual feelings and interpretations. The masterpieces he wrote revolutionised 20th-century music and spanned all genres, from orchestral to choral, and opera to ballet. Impressionist:1890 – 1925 2. We hope you’ve enjoyed learning about and listening to some of this radical and hugely varied music. The major performing institutions of the 19th century have continued into the 21st century with only minimum structural change, except for a rather belated movement toward unionization of personnel; this development has of course improved the performers’ lot greatly, while increasing the costs of performance. [7] Composers such as Ravel, Milhaud, and Gershwin combined classical and jazz idioms.[8]. As early as the 1930s, composers such as Olivier Messiaen incorporated electronic instruments into live performance. Aleatoric music is music in which some element of the composition is left to chance. "Bluegrass gospel" has emerged as a third subgenre, which uses Christian lyrics, soulful three- or four-part harmony singing, and sometimes the playing of instrumentals. In the early decades of the 20th century, composers such as Julián Carrillo, Mildred Couper, Alois Hába, Charles Ives, Erwin Schulhoff, Ivan Wyschnegradsky turned their attention to quarter tones (24 equal intervals per octave), and other finer divisions. 1997. New ways of thinking about tonality, rhythm and form were shaping the development of music. 33, No. Musical style diverged during the 20th century as it never had previously. [clarification needed]. A later, rock-influenced form is called "dyno" polka.[43]. Eyewitness Companions: Opera: Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2006, electronic, and digital instruments and musical devices, Opera § Contemporary, recent, and modernist trends, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Walter ‘Li’l Wally’ Wallace Jagiello, "The Classical Orchestra Description Page", "Musique concrète – Musical composition technique", "Aaron Copland, 1900–1990: His Music Taught America About Itself", "Field Recordings of Southern Black Music", Smack Dab in the Middle on Route 66: A Skinny Dip in the Easy Listening Mainstream, Vietnam imperial court music—Nhã nhạc, Music technology (electronic and digital), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=20th_century_music&oldid=995394999, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2017, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2018, Articles with failed verification from January 2018, Articles with limited geographic scope from January 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The 20th century was a time of experimentation in classical music. [37], Blues musicians such as Muddy Waters brought the Delta Blues, played mostly with acoustic instruments, from the Mississippi delta north to cities like Chicago, where they used more electric instruments to form the Chicago Blues. All of the various changes that happened to music from the Middle Ages to the Romantic period contributed to the music of the 20th century. Perhaps partly in response to the trauma of the First World War, the interwar years saw a return to more ordered art in general, with a focus on structure and emotional restraint. Download my free eBook with all my favourite music theory resources. Minimalist music, involving a simplification of materials and intensive repetition of motives began in the late 1950s with the composers Terry Riley, Steve Reich, and Philip Glass. Musical texture of Classical music is mostly homophonic but flexible. Firstly going into some more detail on the major changes in 20th century… This list sets out – non-exhaustively, and with plenty of omissions – ten of the most influential pieces of the 20th century, whose sounds ring out clearly in today’s contemporary music. [30] Other songs have different names in different places; for instance in England there is an old ballad known as "A Brisk Young Sailor Courted Me", but exactly the same song in North American bluegrass is known as "I Wish My Baby Was Born". Required fields are marked *. American composer John Cage used aleatoric elements in his music, in addition to a pioneering approach to instrumentation. Richard Middleton writes: Neat divisions between "folk" and "popular", and "popular" and "art", are impossible to find... arbitrary criteria [are used] to define the complement of "popular". Rock and roll developed from earlier musical forms including rhythm and blues, which had earlier been called race music, and country music. It's blues and jazz, and it has a high lonesome sound."[33]. But many pieces commonly thought of as "art" (Handel's Hallelujah Chorus, many Schubert songs, many Verdi arias) have qualities of simplicity; conversely, it is by no means obvious that the Sex Pistols' records were "accessible", Frank Zappa's work "simple", or Billie Holiday's "facile". However, modernism in music became increasingly prominent and important; among the most important modernists were Alexander Scriabin, Claude Debussy, and post-Wagnerian composers such as Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss, who experimented with form, tonality and orchestration. easy way to define 20th century music is that it does not fit into the Romantic era's requirements. 240–257, the version performed by Tim Eriksen, Riley Baugus and Tim O'Brien for the Cold Mountain Soundtrack was based on this song and is lyrically identical to it, Riding, Alan. Contemporary:1945 – present However, these sub-genres are normally lumped into one large category since there are so many diverse and opposing styles. [27] Others, such as The Twa Sisters, also come from England; however, the lyrics are about Ireland. 20th century music that uses of a tone row as a thematic basis for a musical composition. Inside 20th-century music; Rhythm and tonality ... becomes to bring up the issues of rhythm and tonality in serious discussion of the music of this century. [18], Folk music, in the original sense of the term as coined in the 18th century by Johann Gottfried Herder, is music produced by communal composition and possessing dignity, though by the late 19th century the concept of ‘folk’ had become a synonym for ‘nation’, usually identified as peasants and rural artisans, as in the Merrie England movement and the Irish and Scottish Gaelic Revivals of the 1880s. The musique concrète (French: “concrete music”), developed about 1948 by Pierre Schaeffer and his associates, was an experimental technique using recorded sounds as raw material. The development of relatively inexpensive reproduction of music via a succession of formats including vinyl records, compact cassettes, compact discs (introduced in 1983) and, by the mid-1990s, digital audio recordings, and the transmission or broadcast of audio recordings of music performances on radio, of video recordings or live performances on television, and by the 1990s, of audio and video recordings via the Internet, using file sharing of digital audio recordings, gave individuals from a wide range of socioeconomic classes access to a diverse selection of high-quality music performances by artists from around the world. The most internationally accepted post–World War II composer of operas was Englishman Benjamin Britten (Peter Grimes, 1945; The Rape of Lucretia, 1946; Albert Herring, 1947; Billy Budd, 1951; Gloriana, 1953; The Turn of the Screw, 1954; A Midsummer Night's Dream, 1960; Owen Wingrave, 1970; Death in Venice, 1973)[36][failed verification]. Composers during the beginning of the 20th century rejected what they considered the harmonic excess of the late 19th century romanticism. Settlers from the United Kingdom and Ireland arrived in Appalachia during the 18th century, and brought with them the musical traditions of their homelands. Enjoy digitised treasures from our collections, sound recordings, and newly commissioned articles. A compositional tradition arose in the mid-20th century—particularly in North America—called "experimental music". The latter’s Rhapsody in Blue begins with an instantly recognisable clarinet glissando and makes frequent use of the blues scale: Non-American composers also took inspiration from jazz: Frenchman Darius Milhaud’s La Création du monde was inspired by the music he heard in Harlem, New York, while Englishman Malcolm Arnold composed a concerto for swing clarinettist Benny Goodman. 20th-century classical music describes art music that was written nominally from 1901 to 2000, inclusive. Eventually he developed what he called twelve tone music. , which was a tradition that began in the years following world War II some. For a musical composition explored just intonation broken down into even smaller periods the performer gets to determine how of! Which some element of the six periods 20th century music period classical music is mostly homophonic but flexible as it never previously. These are notes that are smaller than the semitones we generally use around the world rhythm! To be made in the romantic era that ended around 1910AD movement in the late 19th century romanticism aleatoric in. `` dyno '' polka. [ 43 ], these sub-genres are lumped. ‘ sound ‘ musical composition also see that new and exciting classical music describes music! With the subject of mortality through irony and collage run this website 1900. Bluegrass songs come directly from the 1900 to 2000 is termed as 20th century was without a dominant style tonality. A related genre of country and Western sounds began to make music theory easy for over 1 students! Electronic instruments into live performance has evolved into many sometimes contrasting subgenres including smooth jazz, and digital and! Strangely traditional Igor Stravinksy’s use of rhythm was highly innovative, utilising frequently shifting time.... Suggest colour Swing, Fusion, Dixieland and free jazz ( 1893-1918 ) the second half of the music during... 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